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The Trend Of Manufacturing Transfer Has A Lot To Do With The Future Of The Country

Date:15/02/2020   View: 355   Tags: Manufacturing Transfer Future
The trend of manufacturing transfer has a lot to do with the future of the country. There have been four large-scale manufacturing migrations within the scope, and the innovation factor is an important driving force for the large-scale manufacturing migration. At present, the reality facing manufacturing upgrading and migration is the decline in total factor productivity.

It is generally believed that there have been four large-scale manufacturing migrations in the scope

For the first time in the early 20th century, Britain shifted part of its "excess capacity";

For the second time in the 1950s, traditional industries such as steel and textiles were transferred to defeated countries such as Japan and Germany;

For the third time, in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan and Germany transferred labor-intensive processing industries such as light industry and textile to the Asian "four little dragons" and some families.

For the fourth time in the early 1980s, developed countries such as Europe, the United States, and Japan, and newly industrialized countries such as the "four little dragons" in Asia, shifted labor-intensive industries and low-tech and high-consumption industries to developing countries. It has gradually become the bearer and beneficiary of the third world industrial transfer.

: Undertake innovation with manufacturing process, manufacturing transfer

The process of undertaking the transfer of production capacity and realizing the rise of the manufacturing industry is very long. Even before and after 1850, having 7 of the world's 10 industrial enterprises did not mean that it truly became a manufacturing power. In the competition of industry and technology, it was not until around 1920 that the manufacturing industry completely stood on the top of the undisputed world, which was mainly due to the comprehensive innovation on the manufacturing side and the product side.

In the early 20th century, great inventions and great companies flashed around. Ford's Model T and Cadillac's electronic starter started the car era of mankind. Warner Bros.'s "Jazz Singer" led the prosperity of sound films, stainless steel and artificial Gum has reshaped manufacturing, and telephones and electrification have enabled a complete upgrade of industrial infrastructure.

In particular, the large-scale promotion of assembly line production methods and large-scale mass production, in addition to diluting fixed costs, also brought a large number of engineers together for technical research and development, which greatly promoted technological innovation. At the time, the organizational form of the British factory was relatively traditional. Small and medium-sized workshops were the favorite of British society, but such companies could not achieve economies of scale and systematic R & D and innovation.

By the 1920s, the gap between Britain and the manufacturing sector had been huge. At that time, data showed that R & D expenditures accounted for 2.5% of the national output value, compared with only 2% in the United Kingdom in the same period; civil engineers accounted for 13% of the total employed population, substantially 5% of the UK. In 1929, the three pillar industries of the British economy were railway shipping, tobacco, alcohol, and textiles, while the top three advantageous industries were agricultural equipment and construction machinery, vehicles and aircraft, steel and non-ferrous metals. Britain, an industrial power with a ambition to compete, has sunk to survive on tobacco and alcohol.

Japan, Germany: Undertake manufacturing transfer with collaborative system innovation

After the end of World War II, Germany and Japan were given priority in the development of traditional industries such as steel and textiles in the implementation of the industrial plan for the revival of Europe and Japan. However, Germany and Japan are unwilling to accept this industrial arrangement. If they passively accept the transfer of low-end manufacturing, they will always lose out in future industrial competition. Since then, Germany and Japan have not only focused on developing high-value export industries such as automobiles, machinery, and electronics, but more importantly, have undertaken the transfer of manufacturing industries with an efficient and complete national industrial cooperation system.

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